EXACT and E-RS Translations

Methods used to translate the EXACT followed the Principles of Good Translation and Cultural Adaptation Practice as suggested by ISPOR in 2005.

These methods include:

  • Development of a definition document to guide all translations;
  • Dual forward translation; reconciliation; dual back translation; back translation review; harmonization;
  • Cognitive testing with COPD patients in each target country;
  • Clinician review as-needed to verify terminology; and,
  • Final proofing, including diacritics.

This approach is designed to yield translated versions of the EXACT that are conceptually equivalent to the English source version and easily understood by the target population population of patients with COPD.

Items comprising the E-RS:COPD are included in the EXACT and were therefore included in this translation process.